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The Heliospheric Modulation Model

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By exploiting experimental results, the combined effort of the physicists involved with the Galprop  model for propagation in galaxy and HelMod for the propagation in heliosphere, the local interstellar spectra (LIS) for Galactic Cosmic Rays species  up to Z=28 (Nickel) were derived. These spectra are available and accessible from the current webpage.


Some of the currently available LIS's were derived accounting for AMS-02 data published up to TV rigidity region. The exploitation of AMS-02 data allowed one to approach the procedure with high statistic data of unprecedent accuracy. Currently, the observation data at Earth on cosmic rays species from HEAO3-C2 (from october 1979 to June 1980) and AMS-02 were employed for absolute scale normalization of fluxes (see Sects. 3-3.2 in Boschini et al. 2020).

Figure LISVoyager The GALPROP LIS for all CR species (dashed lines) are compared to the Voyager 1 data (filled circles, Cummings et al 2016). We also show updated Voyager 1 data for H and He (open circles) taken from September 1, 2012 to November 13, 2019. The elements are sorted by approximate amount of primary contribution: first group is mostly primary, second – with significant primary contribution, and third – mostly secondary. 

Galprop-HelMod join effort


Currently published articles regarding local interstellar spectra (LIS):