WARNING: Unpublished spectra. These spectra are subject to modification.

In case of Use Cite "HelMod Online calculator (version 3.4.5) [year,month]: www.helmod.org"

The local interstellar spectra (LIS) are input cosmic ray intensities for any modulation models. Fluxes are assumed isotropically distributed at heliosphere boundary, in a steady-state configuration. The LIS is usually computed using numerical model accounting for the propagation in galaxy. The heliosphere modulation is the added using, e.g.,the modulation module available here for on line use or download.

Recently,using the most recent experimental results, combined with GALPROP model for propagation in galaxy and HelMod for the propagation in heliosphere, the LIS for protons, helium nuclei and antiprotons was deduced.

HelMod and GALPROP were combined to provide a single framework and run to reproduce a comprehensive set of observations of CR species collected in different time periods, from 1997 up to 2015.

The list of preliminary (unpublished) LISs available for the solar modulator is the follow, please note that these spectra are subject to modification and, thus, are not optimized:

Lithium LIS  flux in [m\(^2\) s sr GeV]\(^{-1}\)
Boron LIS  flux in [m\(^2\) s sr GeV]\(^{-1}\)
Beryllium LIS  flux in [m\(^2\) s sr GeV]\(^{-1}\)
Carbon LIS  flux in [m\(^2\) s sr GeV]\(^{-1}\)
Oxygen LIS  flux in [m\(^2\) s sr GeV]\(^{-1}\)
Silicon LIS  flux in [m\(^2\) s sr GeV]\(^{-1}\)
Iron LIS  flux in [m\(^2\) s sr GeV]\(^{-1}\)