WARNING: Unpublished spectra are subject to modification.

In case of Use Cite "HelMod Online calculator (version 4.0.1) [year,month]: www.helmod.org"

The local interstellar spectra (LIS) are input cosmic ray intensities for any modulation models. Fluxes are assumed isotropically distributed at heliosphere boundary, in a steady-state configuration. The LIS is usually computed using numerical model accounting for the propagation in galaxy. The heliosphere modulation is the added using, e.g.,the modulation module available here for on line use or download.

Recently, using the most recent experimental results, combined with GALPROP model for propagation in galaxy and HelMod for the propagation in heliosphere, the LIS for many Galactic Cosmic Rays species was deduced.

HelMod and GALPROP were combined to provide a single framework and run to reproduce a comprehensive set of observations of CR species collected in different time periods, from 1997 up to 2015.

The list of LISs available for the solar modulator is the follow, please note that preliminary (unpublished) spectra are subject to modification and, thus, are not optimized:



The currently available LIS are optimized using AMS-02 data published up to TV rigidity region. This was done for cosmic rays up to Z=8. The use of AMS-02 data, due to his high statistic and unprecedent accuracy, allow to tune propagation code normalization at percent level. For cosmic rays species with Z>8 we use HEAO3-C2 observations that measured the Cosmic rays abundance at Earth orbit from october 1979 to June 1980. LIS evaluated using these data as reference sample are subject to a systematic overestimation with respect the same obtained using AMS-02 data as reference. The ratio between HEAO-C2 normalized LIS and AMS-02 normalized LIS was estimated to be 1.049\(\pm\)0.069. This systematic uncertanties is evaluated comparing Boron, Beryllium, Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen fluxes and including the different modulation effects between the two experiments.