This is the HelMod Code Web application. Unregistered users can freely access to Heliospheric Modulation calculator for available experiments datasets.

The following link give access to Calculators:

HelMod data sets and results can be freely downloaded or copied. However, the user should make the appropriate acknowledgment or citation, e.g., see  Citations or Bibliography  pages.

How to use this HelMod Solar Modulator

This tools evaluates the modulated spectrum at Earth orbit for theorical LIS evaluated with GALPROP. The particle transport is described using the Helmod Model. For information about the computation method please refear to Monte Carlo Integration page.

The input parameters and options for the tool are described below. Once the input form has been completed,  "Submit" button will start the calculation and open the "Results" page (allow for pop-up in your browser settings).

From version 3.2.0 a systematic cross check with Online Modulator was performed. An additional systematic discrepancy must accounted for Carrington Rotation Simulations not covered by experimental data listed here (or covered by years-integrated experimental data like, e.g., 2011-2013).

Input Parameters:

- Galactic Cosmic Rays particle species
- Carrington rotation


Galactic Cosmic Rays particle species

In the HelMod Solar Modulator, using the drop down menu, the user can select the species Galactic Cosmic Rays to be modulated.

Carrington Rotation

In the HelMod Solar Modulator it is possible to specify the period for which the solar modulation would be evaluated. The choice specify the heliosphere parameters for the corresponding period. Solutions are provided using the AMS-02 rigidity binning from 1 GV to 1 TeV.

List of available Periods


To evaluate the Modulated spectrum it is mandatory to load a LIS in the format of GALPROP fits file (*.gz extension). The fits must contain at least the computed LIS for the Galactic Cosmic Rays particle species to be modulated. The Module evaluate the LIS for modulation as the sum of primary spectrum with secondaries and isotopes.

From Version 3.0.1 HelMod accept also LIS in plaintext mode. User can provide a txt file for LIS with the follow characteristics:

  1. The file should have a mime type 'text/plain' (Checkout this list for allowed extensions).
  2. The file must contains two columns only:
    1. one for kinetic energy per nucleon [GeV]
    2. the second for the LIS flux [ (m\(^2\) s sr GeV)\(^{-1}\)].
  3. The file can contains comments. Line starting with '#' character will be ignored.


The result page contains the modulated spectrum. Results are provided as image, text file and numpy/python archive.

Default parameters and Example

Default parameters provided best results using the InBuilt Default LIS. The Default LISs for Proton, Antiproton and Helium were obtained using a state-of-art version of GALPROP  where a smoothing in the injection spectra was introduced, as discussed in Della Torre et al 2016a. The Combination of both allow the user to have the best agreements between simulated modulated spectrum and Experimental Data.



  S Della Torre, M Gervasi, D Grandi, G Johannesson, G La Vacca, N Masi, I V Moskalenko, E Orlando, T A Porter, L Quadrani, P G Rancoita and D Rozza. (2016a) From Observations near the Earth to the Local Interstellar Spectra. To be submitted to Proceedings of the 25th European Cosmic Rays Symposyum (ECRS2016), Septembers 4-9,2016 (Torino, Italy) .