This is the HelMod Code Web application. Unregistered users can freely access to Heliospheric Modulation calculator for available experiments datasets.

The following link give access to Calculators:

HelMod data sets and results can be freely downloaded or copied. However, the user should make the appropriate acknowledgment or citation, e.g., see  Citations or Bibliography  pages.

The data generated by using the Calculator may be used by HelMod developers for statistical purpose.

How to use this HelMod Calculator

This tools evaluates the modulated spectrum at Earth orbit for theorical LIS evaluated with GALPROP. The particle transport is described using the Helmod Model. For information about the computation method please refear to Monte Carlo Integration page.

The input parameters and options for the tool are described below. Once the input form has been completed,  "Submit" button will start the calculation and open the "Results" page (allow for pop-up in your browser settings).

Input Parameters:

- Galactic Cosmic Rays particle species
- Experiments datasets
- LIS-GALPROP Fits File
- HelMod Parameters 

Galactic Cosmic Rays particle species

In the HelMod Calculator, using the drop down menu, the user can select the species Galactic Cosmic Rays to be modulated.

Experiments datasets

In the HelMod Calculator it is possible to specify Experiment dataset that the uses wish to compare with the simulation. The Experiment is required to design the Rigidity binning, Moreover, since solar modulations change in time as the soalr activity, this choise specify the heliosphere parameters for the corresponding period.

List of available Experiments

LIS-GALPROP Fits File

To evaluate the Modulated spectrum it is mandatory to load a LIS in the format of GALPROP fits file (*.gz extension). The fits must contain at least the computed LIS for the Galactic Cosmic Rays particle species to be modulated. The Module evaluate the LIS for modulation as the sum of primary spectrum with secondaries and isotopes.

From Version 3.0.1 HelMod accept also LIS in plaintext mode. User can provide a txt file for LIS with the follow characteristics:

  1. The file should have a mime type 'text/plain' (Checkout this list for allowed extensions).
  2. The file must contains two columns only:
    1. one for kinetic energy per nucleon [GeV]
    2. the second for the LIS flux [ (m\(^2\) s sr GeV)\(^{-1}\)].
  3. The file can contains comments. Line starting with '#' character will be ignored.

 

Result

The result page contains the modulated spectrum and relative difference with respect experimental data. Results are provided as image, text file and numpy/python archive.

 

Default parameters and Example

Default parameters provided best results using the InBuilt Default LIS. The Default LISs for Proton, Antiproton and Helium were obtained using a state-of-art version of GALPROP  where a smoothing in the injection spectra was introduced, as discussed in Boschini et al 2017a and Boschini et al, 2017bb. The Combination of both allow the user to have the best agreements between simulated modulated spectrum and Experimental Data. 

 

Bibliography

BoschiniEtAlAdvSR2017 Boschini, M.J., Della Torre, S., Gervasi, M., La Vacca, G. and Rancoita, P. G. (2017a) Propagation of Cosmic Rays in Heliosphere: the HelMod Model Accepted for publication in Advances in Space Research. ArXiv:1704.03733, DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.04.017
BoschiniEtAlApJ2017 Boschini, M.J., Della Torre, S., Gervasi, M., Grandi, D., Johannesson, G., Kachelriess, M., La Vacca, G., Masi, N., Moskalenko, I. V., Orlando, E., Ostapchenko, S.S., Pensotti, S., Porter, T. A., Quadrani, L., Rancoita, P. G., Rozza, D. and Tacconi, M. (2017b) Solution of Heliospheric Propagation: Unveiling the Local Interstellar Spectrum of Cosmic Rays Species  Astrophysical Journal, 840:115.

This is the HelMod Code Web application. Unregistered users can freely access to Heliospheric Modulation calculator for available experiments datasets.

The following link give access to Calculators:

HelMod data sets and results can be freely downloaded or copied. However, the user should make the appropriate acknowledgment or citation, e.g., see  Citations or Bibliography  pages.

The data generated by using the Calculator may be used by HelMod developers for statistical purpose.

How to use this HelMod Solar Modulator

This tools evaluates the modulated spectrum at Earth orbit for theorical LIS evaluated with GALPROP. The particle transport is described using the Helmod Model. For information about the computation method please refear to Monte Carlo Integration page.

The input parameters and options for the tool are described below. Once the input form has been completed,  "Submit" button will start the calculation and open the "Results" page (allow for pop-up in your browser settings).

From version 3.2.0 a systematic cross check with Online Modulator was performed. An additional systematic discrepancy must accounted for Carrington Rotation Simulations not covered by experimental data listed here (or covered by years-integrated experimental data like, e.g., 2011-2013).

Input Parameters:

- Galactic Cosmic Rays particle species
- Carrington rotation
- LIS-GALPROP Fits File
- HelMod Parameters 

 

Galactic Cosmic Rays particle species

In the HelMod Solar Modulator, using the drop down menu, the user can select the species Galactic Cosmic Rays to be modulated.

Carrington Rotation

In the HelMod Solar Modulator it is possible to specify the period for which the solar modulation would be evaluated. The choice specify the heliosphere parameters for the corresponding period. Solutions are provided using the AMS-02 rigidity binning from 1 GV to 1 TeV.

List of available Periods

LIS-GALPROP Fits File

To evaluate the Modulated spectrum it is mandatory to load a LIS in the format of GALPROP fits file (*.gz extension). The fits must contain at least the computed LIS for the Galactic Cosmic Rays particle species to be modulated. The Module evaluate the LIS for modulation as the sum of primary spectrum with secondaries and isotopes.

From Version 3.0.1 HelMod accept also LIS in plaintext mode. User can provide a txt file for LIS with the follow characteristics:

  1. The file should have a mime type 'text/plain' (Checkout this list for allowed extensions).
  2. The file must contains two columns only:
    1. one for kinetic energy per nucleon [GeV]
    2. the second for the LIS flux [ (m\(^2\) s sr GeV)\(^{-1}\)].
  3. The file can contains comments. Line starting with '#' character will be ignored.

Result

The result page contains the modulated spectrum. Results are provided as image, text file and numpy/python archive.

Default parameters and Example

Default parameters provided best results using the InBuilt Default LIS. The Default LISs for Proton, Antiproton and Helium were obtained using a state-of-art version of GALPROP  where a smoothing in the injection spectra was introduced, as discussed in Della Torre et al 2016a. The Combination of both allow the user to have the best agreements between simulated modulated spectrum and Experimental Data.

 

Bibliography

  S Della Torre, M Gervasi, D Grandi, G Johannesson, G La Vacca, N Masi, I V Moskalenko, E Orlando, T A Porter, L Quadrani, P G Rancoita and D Rozza. (2016a) From Observations near the Earth to the Local Interstellar Spectra. To be submitted to Proceedings of the 25th European Cosmic Rays Symposyum (ECRS2016), Septembers 4-9,2016 (Torino, Italy) .

This is the HelMod Code Web application. Unregistered users can freely access to Heliospheric Modulation calculator for available experiments datasets.

The following link give access to Calculators:

HelMod data sets and results can be freely downloaded or copied. However, the user should make the appropriate acknowledgment or citation, e.g., see  Citations or Bibliography  pages.

The data generated by using the Calculator may be used by HelMod developers for statistical purpose.

How to use this HelMod Forecast Modulator

This tools evaluates the modulated spectrum at Earth orbit for theorical LIS evaluated with GALPROP. The particle transport is described using the Helmod Model. For information about the computation method please refear to Monte Carlo Integration page.

The input parameters and options for the tool are described below. Once the input form has been completed,  "Submit" button will start the calculation and open the "Results" page (allow for pop-up in your browser settings).

 

Input Parameters:

- Galactic Cosmic Rays particle species
- Carrington rotation
- LIS-GALPROP Fits File
- HelMod Parameters 

 

Galactic Cosmic Rays particle species

In the HelMod Solar Modulator, using the drop down menu, the user can select the species Galactic Cosmic Rays to be modulated.

Carrington Rotation

In the HelMod Solar Modulator it is possible to specify the period for which the solar modulation would be evaluated. The choice specify the heliosphere parameters for the corresponding period. Solutions are provided using the AMS-02 rigidity binning from 1 GV to 1 TeV.

List of available Periods

LIS-GALPROP Fits File

To evaluate the Modulated spectrum it is mandatory to load a LIS in the format of GALPROP fits file (*.gz extension). The fits must contain at least the computed LIS for the Galactic Cosmic Rays particle species to be modulated. The Module evaluate the LIS for modulation as the sum of primary spectrum with secondaries and isotopes.

From Version 3.0.1 HelMod accept also LIS in plaintext mode. User can provide a txt file for LIS with the follow characteristics:

  1. The file should have a mime type 'text/plain' (Checkout this list for allowed extensions).
  2. The file must contains two columns only:
    1. one for kinetic energy per nucleon [GeV]
    2. the second for the LIS flux [ (m\(^2\) s sr GeV)\(^{-1}\)].
  3. The file can contains comments. Line starting with '#' character will be ignored.

Result

The result page contains the modulated spectrum. Results are provided as image, text file and numpy/python archive.

Default parameters and Example

Default parameters provided best results using the InBuilt Default LIS. The Default LISs for Proton, Antiproton and Helium were obtained using a state-of-art version of GALPROP  where a smoothing in the injection spectra was introduced, as discussed in Della Torre et al 2016a. The Combination of both allow the user to have the best agreements between simulated modulated spectrum and Experimental Data.

 

Bibliography

  S Della Torre, M Gervasi, D Grandi, G Johannesson, G La Vacca, N Masi, I V Moskalenko, E Orlando, T A Porter, L Quadrani, P G Rancoita and D Rozza. (2016a) From Observations near the Earth to the Local Interstellar Spectra. To be submitted to Proceedings of the 25th European Cosmic Rays Symposyum (ECRS2016), Septembers 4-9,2016 (Torino, Italy) .

This is the HelMod Code Web application. Unregistered users can freely access to Heliospheric Modulation calculator for available experiments datasets.

The following link give access to Calculators:

HelMod data sets and results can be freely downloaded or copied. However, the user should make the appropriate acknowledgment or citation, e.g., see  Citations or Bibliography  pages.

The data generated by using the Calculator may be used by HelMod developers for statistical purpose.

How to use this HelMod Solar Modulator

This tools evaluates the modulated spectrum at Earth orbit for theorical LIS evaluated with GALPROP. The particle transport is described using the Helmod Model. For information about the computation method please refear to Monte Carlo Integration page.

The input parameters and options for the tool are described below. Once the input form has been completed,  "Submit" button will start the calculation and open the "Results" page (allow for pop-up in your browser settings).

Results with this modulator have to be considered preliminary since sistematic crosscheck with experimental data is in progress.

Input Parameters:

- Galactic Cosmic Rays particle species
- Carrington rotation
- LIS-GALPROP Fits File

 

Galactic Cosmic Rays particle species

In the HelMod Solar Modulator, using the drop down menu, the user can select the species Galactic Cosmic Rays to be modulated.

Carrington Rotation

In the HelMod Solar Modulator it is possible to specify the period for which the solar modulation would be evaluated. The choice specify the heliosphere parameters for the corresponding period. Solutions are provided using the AMS-02 rigidity binning from 1 GV to 1 TeV.

List of available Periods

LIS-GALPROP Fits File

To evaluate the Modulated spectrum it is mandatory to load a LIS in the format of GALPROP fits file (*.gz extension). The fits must contain at least the computed LIS for the Galactic Cosmic Rays particle species to be modulated. The Module evaluate the LIS for modulation as the sum of primary spectrum with secondaries and isotopes.

From Version 3.0.1 HelMod accept also LIS in plaintext mode. User can provide a txt file for LIS with the follow characteristics:

  1. The file should have a mime type 'text/plain' (Checkout this list for allowed extensions).
  2. The file must contains two columns only:
    1. one for kinetic energy per nucleon [GeV]
    2. the second for the LIS flux [ (m\(^2\) s sr GeV)\(^{-1}\)].
  3. The file can contains comments. Line starting with '#' character will be ignored.

Result

The result page contains the modulated spectrum. Results are provided as image, text file and numpy/python archive.

Default parameters and Example

Default parameters provided best results according to proton spectra comparison with experimental data (see Boschini et al 2017). Example of preliminary LIS for ions are provided in TXT format.

 

Bibliography

BoschiniEtAlApJ2017  Boschini, M.J., Della Torre, S., Gervasi, M., Grandi, D., Johannesson, G., Kachelriess, M., La Vacca, G., Masi, N., Moskalenko, I. V., Orlando, E., Ostapchenko, S.S., Pensotti, S., Porter, T. A., Quadrani, L., Rancoita, P. G., Rozza, D. and Tacconi, M. (2017) Solution of Heliospheric Propagation: Unveiling the Local Interstellar Spectrum of Cosmic Rays Species  Astrophysical Journal, 840:115.

The SDE integration with HelMod results in a quite expensive effort from the computational point of view since,
to minimize the uncertainties, an huge amount of event should be integrated from Earth to heliosphere boundary.

Monte Carlo integration allows us to evaluate the normalized probability function \(G(R_0|R)\) that a particle observed at Earth with rigidity \(R_0\) entered into the heliosphere with rigidity \(R\).
Thus, the modulated spectrum at specific energy \(R_0\) is proportional to:
\begin{equation}\label{eq::PyMod_modulation}
 J_{mod}(R_0)= \int_0^\infty J_{LIS}(R)G(R_0|R)dR.
\end{equation}
Once that \(G(R_0|R)\) was evaluated, using the numerical approximation, it is possible to apply the modulation directly to LISs provided by GALPROP.

The effect of propagation in heliosphere is then evaluated using a normalized probability function pre-evaluated with HelMod using parameters described in previous section.
We developed a python script that read GALPROP output and provide modulated spectrum for periods of selected experiments.

 

Download latest released version

Download last Python Module (v 3.4):
Download Archive of Calculator (v 3.4):
Download Archive of Solar modulator for proton, helium, Antiproton (v 3.4):
Download Archive of Solar modulator for Ions Z=>3:

HelMod data sets and results can be freely downloaded or copied. However, the user should make the appropriate acknowledgment or citation, e.g., see  Citations or Bibliography  pages.

How to install and configure

install python (>=2.7) packages

  • pyfits
  • scypy >=0.17.0
  • numpy >=1.10
  • wget
  • matplotlib

Download Python file and place in a working directory.

To configure the module you first need to download the HelMod Archive:

> python SolarModulation_Galprop_<version>.py  --Install

This will download and save the Archive in the working directory. To specify a different installing directory use the option -a <PATH> or --ArchivePATH <PATH>

If you are working offline and/or you get different version of the Archive you can skip the download part using --UseLocal to use the local .tgz file in the working directory.

 

if you want to use the Module everywhere on the local machine you can set the enviroment key that defines the path to installed archive.

export HelMOD_RAW_FILES=<PATH>

 

How to Use the Module

To use The module you need

  1. The path helmod Archive (see how to install and configure)
  2. A GALPROP fits file or a TXT file

The basic command to get Solar modulated spectrum is:

python SolarModulation_Galprop_<version>.py <GALPROPFits.gz> <ExpNameKey>


where <ExpNameKey>  is the key name that define the paticle species and experiment which you want to modulate.

The list of available species/experiments in the archive can be listed using the command

python SolarModulation_Galprop_<version>.py -l

 

during the modulation there are few options you can use

-a (--ArchivePATH)  <PATH> to HelMod Archive if you don't set the Envinroment Key

--MakePlot          Create a Plot in png format

--NoExpData         display simulation and LIS only

--Normalize         apply automatic normalization of modulated spectrum to Experimental Data

-o (--output) <FILE_NAME> specify output file name (default is "ModulatedSpectra.dat")

--joinLIS           Sum the LIS in kinetic enery from all Isotope (ex. proton, Deuterium,..) and apply the same modulation

--joinIsotope       apply different modulation for different Isotope, then Sums the results after conversion in Rigidity

-p (--ParametersSet) <PAR_SET_NAME> Define the name of not default parameter Sets available in HelMod Archive (Expert Only)

-t                 specify that a txt file is provided instead of GALPROPFits.

--PrintLIS          Print Complete LIS used for Modulation (note that if --joinIsotope is Activeted output LIS is the sum in Rigidity of all isotopes

--ExtraSource_GeV <FILE_NAME> specify an extrasource to be added to LIS. File must be two column and expressend in GeV/nuc

LIS in text format

User can provide a txt file for LIS with the follow characteristics:

  1. The file must be a text file.
  2. The file must contains two columns only:
    1. one for kinetic energy per nucleon [GeV]
    2. the second for the LIS flux [ (m\(^2\) s sr GeV)\(^{-1}\)].
  3. The file can contains comments. Line starting with '#' character will be ignored.